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Glossary of terms

Glossary of terms

ABET
Adult Basic Education and Training
AS/NZ 4801
Australian occupational health and safety management standards
Backfill
Material generally sourced from mine residues and utilised for the filling of mined voids, to ensure longterm stability of excavations and minimise the effects of seismic activity
BEE
Black Economic Empowerment. BEE seeks to ensure that black persons within South Africa gain a significant degree of control in the economy through the possession of equity stakes and the holding of management positions within an institution
Blasthole
A drill hole in a mine that is filled with explosives in order to blast loose a quantity of rock
Bore-hole or drill-hole
Method of sampling rock that has not been exposed by means of obtaining a core of rock (see diamond drill)
Box-hole
A cross raise, normally from the access cross-cut to the reef horizon, for the purpose of drawing broken rock and ore from the reef horizon into a conveyance in the crosscut
Breast mining
A mining method whereby mining advances in the direction of the strike
Bulk mining
Any large-scale, mechanised method of mining involving many thousands of tonnes of ore being brought to surface each day
BVQI
Bureau Veritas Qualite International is a leading global and independent certification body that audits and certifies whether company systems meet the requirements of ISO standards
Carbon-in-Leach
The recovery process in which gold is leached from gold ore pulp by cyanide and simultaneously adsorbed onto activated carbon granules in the same vessel. The loaded carbon is then separated from the pulp for subsequent gold removal by elution. The process is typically employed where there is a naturally occurring gold adsorbent in the ore
Carbon-in-Pulp
The recovery process in which gold is first leached from gold ore pulp by cyanide and then adsorbed onto activated carbon granules in separate vessels. The loaded carbon is then separated from the pulp for subsequent gold removal by elution
Capital expenditure (or capex)
Specific project or ongoing expenditure for replacement or additional equipment, materials or infrastructure
Channel
Water course, also in this sense sedimentary material course
Collective Bargaining Agreement
Collective Bargaining Agreement means a written agreement concerning terms and conditions of employment or any other matter of mutual interest concluded by a trade union(s) and the company
Co-morbidity
Medical term for diseases that commonly co-exist to increase the risk of morbidity
Comminution
The term used to describe the process by which ore is reduced in size in order to liberate the desired mineral from the gangue material in preparation for further processing
Concentrate
A metal-rich product resulting from a mineral enrichment process such as gravity concentration or flotation, in which most of the desired mineral has been separated from the waste material in the ore
Conglomerate
Sedimentary rock comprising eroded, rounded pebbles
Cross-cut
A horizontal underground drive developed perpendicular to the strike direction of the stratigraphy
Cut-off grade
The lowest grade of mineralised rock cut-off grade which determines as to whether or not it is economic to recover its gold content by further concentration
Decline
A surface or sub-surface excavation in the form of a tunnel which is developed from the uppermost point downward
Depletion
The decrease in quantity of ore in a deposit or property resulting from extraction or mining
Development
Is any tunnelling operation, which has for its object either exploration, exploitation or both
Diamond drill
A rotary type of rock drill that cuts a core of rock that is recovered in long cylindrical sections
Dilution
Waste or material below the cut-off grade that contaminates the ore during the course of mining operations and thereby reduces the average grade mined
Dip
Angle of inclination of a geological feature/rock from the horizontal
Dyke
Thin, tabular, vertical or near vertical body of igneous rock formed by the injection of magma into planar zones of weakness
Elution
The chemical process of desorbing gold from activated carbon
Face
The end of a drift, cross-cut or stope at which work is taking place
Facies
A rock unit defined by its composition, internal geometry and formation environment, usually reflecting the conditions of its origin
Fatality rate
Number of deaths per million man-hours worked
Fault
The surface of a fracture along which movement has occurred
Feasibility study
A comprehensive design and costing study of the selected option for the development of a mineral project in which appropriate assessments have been made of realistically assumed geological, mining, metallurgical, economic, marketing, legal, environmental, social, governmental, engineering, operational and all other modifying factors, which are considered in sufficient detail to demonstrate at the time of reporting that extraction is reasonably justified (economically mineable) and the factors reasonably serve as the basis for a final decision by a proponent or financial institution to proceed with, or finance, the development of the project. The overall confidence of the study should be stated
Filtration
Process of separating usually valuable solid material from a liquid
Flotation
The process by which the surface chemistry of the desired mineral particles is chemically modified such that they preferentially attach themselves to bubbles and float to the pulp surface in specially designed machines. The gangue or waste minerals are chemically depressed and do not float, thus allowing the valuable minerals to be concentrated and separated from the undesired material
Footwall
The underlying side of an ore body or stope
Gold equivalent
A quantity of metal (such as copper) converted to an amount of gold in ounces, based on accepted gold and other metal prices. i.e. The accepted total value of the metal based on its weight and value thereof divided by the accepted value of one troy ounce of gold
Grade
The quantity of gold contained within a unit weight of goldbearing material generally expressed in grams per metric tonne (g/t)
Hanging wall
The overlying side of an ore body or slope
Haulage
A horizontal underground excavation which is used to transport mined ore
Head grade
The grade of the material delivered to the processing facility (such as heap leach pad, Mill etc.). The Mineral Reserve declaration is for material as delivered to the processing facility
Hedging
Taking a buy or sell position in futures market. Opposite to a position held in the cash/spot market to minimise the risk of financial loss from an adverse price change
Hydrothermal
Process of injection of hot, aqueous, generally mineral-rich solutions into existing rocks or features
ICVCT
Informed Consented Voluntary Counselling and Testing
Indicated Mineral Resource
That part of a Mineral Resource for which tonnage, densities, shape, physical characteristics, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a reasonable level of confidence. It is based on exploration, sampling and testing information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill-holes. The locations are too widely or inappropriately spaced to confirm geological and/or grade continuity but are spaced closely enough for continuity to be assumed
Inferred Mineral Resource
That part of a Mineral Resource for which tonnage, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a low level of confidence. It is inferred from geological evidence and assumed but not verified geological and/or grade continuity. It is based on information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill-holes which may be limited or of uncertain quality and reliability
ISO 14000
International standards for organisations to implement sound environmental management systems
LTIFR
Lost-Time Injury Frequency Rate. Number of lost day injuries expressed in million man hours worked
Lock-up gold
Gold locked as a temporary inventory within a processing plant, or sections thereof, typically milling circuits
Measured Mineral Resource
That part of a Mineral Resource for which tonnage, densities, shape, physical characteristics, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a high level of confidence. It is based on detailed and reliable exploration, sampling and testing information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drillholes. The locations are spaced closely enough to confirm geological and grade continuity
Milling
A general term used to describe the process in which the ore is crushed and ground and subjected to physical or chemical treatment to extract the valuable metals to a concentrate or finished product
Mine Health and Safety
Act (MHSA)
The South African Mine Health and Safety Act, No 29 of 1996
Mineral Resource
A ‘Mineral Resource’ is a concentration or occurrence of material of economic interest in or on the earth’s crust in such form, quality and quantity that there are reasonable and realistic prospects for eventual economic extraction. The location, quantity, grade, continuity and other geological characteristics of a Mineral Resource are known, or estimated from specific geological evidence, sampling and knowledge interpreted from an appropriately constrained and portrayed geological model. Mineral Resources are subdivided, and must be so reported, in order of increasing confidence in respect of geoscientific evidence, into Inferred, Indicated or Measured categories
Mineral Reserve
A ‘Mineral Reserve’ is the economically mineable material derived from a Measured or Indicated Mineral Resource or both. It includes diluting and contaminating materials and allows for losses that are expected to occur when the material is mined. Appropriate assessments to a minimum of a Pre- Feasibility Study for a project and a Life-of-Mine Plan for an operation must have been completed, including consideration of, and modification by, realistically assumed mining, metallurgical, economic, marketing, legal, environmental, social and governmental factors (the modifying factors). Such modifying factors must be disclosed
Mineralised
Rock in which minerals have been introduced to the point of a potential ore deposit
Minerals Act
The South African Minerals Act, No 50 of 1999
Normal fault
Fault in which the hanging wall moves downward relative to the footwall, under extensional tectonic conditions
Notional cash expenditure (NCE)
NCE is defined as operating costs plus capital expenditure and is reported on a per kilogram and per ounce basis.
Nugget effect
A measure of the randomness of the grade distribution within a mineralised zone
NUM
National Union of Mine Workers
OHSAS
Management system standards, developed in order to facilitate the integration of quality and occupational health and safety management systems by organisations
Payshoot
Linear to sub-linear zone within a reef for which gold grades or accumulations are predominantly above the cut-off grade
Pillar
Rock left behind to help support the excavations in an underground mine
Probable Mineral Reserve
The economically mineable material derived from a Measured and/or Indicated Mineral Resource. It is estimated with a lower level of confidence than a Proved Mineral Reserve. It is inclusive of diluting materials and allows for losses that may occur when the material is mined. Appropriate assessments, which may include feasibility studies, have been carried out and including consideration of and modification by, realistically assumed mining, metallurgical, economic, marketing, legal, environmental, social and governmental factors. These assessments demonstrate at the time of reporting that extraction is reasonably justified
Project capital
Capital expenditure which is associated with specific projects of a non-routine nature
Proved Mineral Reserve
The economically mineable material derived from a Measured Mineral Resource. It is estimated with a high level of confidence. It is inclusive of diluting materials and allows for losses that may occur when the material is mined. Appropriate assessments, which may include feasibility studies, have been carried out, including consideration of and modification by realistically assumed mining, metallurgical, economic, marketing, legal, environmental, social and governmental factors. These assessments demonstrate at the time of reporting that extraction is reasonably justified
Reef
Gold bearing sedimentary horizon in the Witwatersrand Basin
SADC
Southern African Development Community
SAMREC Code
The South African code for the reporting of exploration results, Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves (the SAMREC Code) 2007 Edition
Seismic
Earthquake or earth vibration including those artificially induced by mining operations
Sequential Grid Mining
Mining method incorporating dip pillars and mined on a grid system
Shaft
An opening cut downwards from the surface for transporting personnel, equipment, supplies, ore and waste
Shear
A deformation resulting from stresses that cause contiguous parts of a body of rock to slide relative to each other in a direction parallel to their plane of contact
Stope
The working area from which ore is extracted in an underground mine
Stripping
The process of removing overburden or waste rock to expose ore
Stripping ratio
The ratio of waste tonnes to ore tonnes mined calculated as total tonnes mined less ore tonnes mined divided by ore tonnes mined
Stratigraphy
The science of rock strata, including arrangement according to geographical positioning and chronological order of sequence
Strike
Direction of line formed by the intersection of strata surfaces with the horizontal plane, always perpendicular to the dip direction
Sub-vertical shaft
An opening cut below the surface downwards from an established surface shaft
Surface sources
Ore sources, usually dumps, tailings dams and stockpiles, located at the surface
TEBA
The Employment Bureau of Africa
Tertiary shaft
An opening cut below the surface downwards from an established sub-vertical shaft
The Base Case
The Base Case is established as part of the financial models
Trade union
An association of employees: whose principal purpose is to regulate relations between employees and the company, which has been registered; whose officials have been elected to represent the interests of employees within the workplace; and which is recognised for collective bargaining by the company
Total cash costs
Total cash costs include cost of sales – excluding amortisation and depreciation, rehabilitation costs, general and administration costs, and exploration costs in accordance with the Gold Institute Industry Standard
Vamping
Is the final clean-up of track ballast and/or accumulations in gullies and along transportation routes

Abbreviations and units

ABET
Adult Basic Education and Training
ADS
American Depository Shares
AIDS
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
ARC
Assessment and Rehabilitation Centres
ART
Antiretroviral therapy
CBO
Community based organisation
CIL
Carbon-in-leach
CIP
Carbon-in-pulp
CIS
Carbon-in solution
DCF
Discounted Cash Flow
ETF
Exchange traded fund
GFHS
Gold Fields Health Service
GFLC
Gold Fields La Cima
GRI
Global Reporting Initiative
HBC
Home-Based Care
HDSA
Historically disadvantaged South African
HIV
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
LoM plan
Life-of-Mine plan
LTIFR
Lost Time Injury Frequency Rate, quoted in million man hours
NGO
Non-governmental organisation
NUM
National Union of Mineworkers
NYSE
New York Stock Exchange
MCF
Mine Call Factor
OHC
Occupational Health Centre
OT
Occupational Therapy
PHC
Primary Health Clinic
PPI
Producer Price Index
SAMREC
South African code for Reporting of Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves
SEC
United States Securities Exchange Commission
STI
Sexually Transmitted Infection
TB
Tuberculosis
TEC
Total Employees Costed
UASA
United Association of South Africa (a labour organisation)
VCT
Voluntary Counselling and Testing (for HIV)
cm
centimetre
cm.g/t
gold accumulation
g
gram
g/t
grams per metric tonne – gold grade
ha
hectare
kg
kilogram
km
kilometer
koz
thousand ounces
kt
thousand metric tonnes
ktpa
thousand metric tonnes per annum
ktpm
thousand tonnes per month
m2
square meter
Moz
million ounces
oz
fine troy ounce equalling 31.10348 grams
t
metric tonne
US$
United States dollar
US$m
million United States dollars
US$/oz
United States dollar per ounce
R
South African rand
R/kg
South African rand per kilogram
Rm
million South African rands
R/t
South African rand per metric tonne

Glossary of terms – Sustainable Development

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

  • United Nations Global Compact – is a United Nations initiative to encourage businesses worldwide to adopt sustainable and socially responsible policies, and to report on their implementation. The Global Compact is a principle-based framework for businesses, stating ten principles in the areas of human rights, labour, the environment and anti-corruption. Under the Global Compact, companies are brought together with UN agencies, labour groups and civil society.
  • Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) – produces one of the world’s most prevalent standards for sustainability reporting. Sustainability reporting is a form of value reporting where an organisation publicly communicates their economic, environmental, and social performance.
  • ICMM (International Council on Mining and Metals) – CEO led organisation of mining companies that seeks to continually entrench best practice with regard to sustainable development and to provide a platform for member companies to share experiences.

HEALTH, SAFETY AND WELL-BEING

  • LTIFR (Lost Day Injury Frequency Rate) – Frequency rate that takes into account, any injury occurring in the workplace where a person is unable to attend a full shift due to this injury at any time following the injury. i.e. It is not only relevant to the shift immediately following.
  • SIFR (Serious Injury Frequency Rate) – Frequency rate that takes into account, any injury where a person is defined as an LTI but will be unable to return to work within 14 days of their injury occurring.
  • MTIFR (Medically Treated Injury Frequency Rate) – Frequency rate that takes into account, any work related injury where a person is sent to a medical practitioner and is given treatment that cannot be provided on site by a First Aider. e.g. The prescription of a medication that is unavailable over the counter medication from any drug store or Pharmacy, Sutures, X – rays resulting in identifying an injury whether it be a fracture, tendon damage or otherwise. (X – rays are not treated as medical treatment where no injury is found). If the medical practitioner prescribes further treatment such as physiotherapy or chiropractics this would be considered a medically treated injury.
  • OHSAS 18001 – An international voluntary standard against which organisations are assessed on their Health and Safety performance. As with other standards, it is based around the setting of objectives and targets and the monitoring of the businesses performance against these.
  • AS 4801 – An Australian Standard for occupational health and safety and is currently one of the main system requirements for national, state and local government projects.
  • Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) – is an increasingly prevalent disorder that results from exposure to high-intensity sound, especially over a long period of time.
  • Silicosis – is a form of occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in forms of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs.
  • Chronic Obstructive Airway Disease (COAD) – refers to chronic bronchitis and emphysema, a pair of commonly co-existing diseases of the lungs in which the airways become narrowed.
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) – Treatment with a very potent drug “cocktail” to suppress the growth of HIV, the retrovirus responsible for AIDS.

ENVIRONMENT

  • ISO 14001 – An international voluntary standard for environmental management systems. This is one standard in the ISO 14000 series of International Standards on environmental management.
  • Environmental Incidences – These are incidences that are classified in accordance with a system designed by Gold Fields that classifies the incident based on its severity. The incidences are classified as follows:
    – Level 1 – incidences of minor non-conformance that result in no negligible adverse environmental impact
    – Level 2 – incidences that result in short-term, limited and non ongoing adverse environmental impacts
    – Level 3 – incidences that result in ongoing, but limited environmental impact
    – Level 4 – incidences that result in medium-term environmental impact
    – Level 5 – incidences that result in long-term environmental impact
  • Water withdrawal – The sum of all water drawn into the boundaries of the reporting organisation for any use over the course of the reporting period.
  • Water discharge – The sum of water effluents discharged over the course of the reporting period to the receiving environment
  • mS/m (milliSiemens/metre) – is the unit used in the measuring of the electrical conductivity of water and provides an indication of overall water quality
  • Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) – refers to the outflow of acidic water from (usually abandoned) mines that contain high pyrite levels. It is also known as acid rock drainage (ARD). The acid is formed from the pyrite mineral oxidising and forming sulphuric acid
  • Basel Convention – is an international treaty that was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and specifically to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries (LDCs).

SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT AND MATERIAL STEWARDSHIP

  • ICMC (International Cyanide Management Code) – is a voluntary industry programme for manufacture, transport and use of cyanide in gold production.

SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT

  • Corporate Social Investment (CSI spend) – total monies disbursed through our foundations to achieve commitments set out in our socioeconomic development programmes. In some regions, additional projects may be captured under the CSI spend such as the Black Stars sponsorship in Ghana or potential projects for exploration and project development such as at Chucapaca – should be replaced throughout the report with Local Economic Development
  • Local Economic Development (LED) – refers to initiatives and monies disbursed to uplift socio-economic conditions in the communities in which we operate
  • AA 1000 SES – is a generally applicable, open-source framework for improving the quality of the design, implementation, assessment, communication and assurance of stakeholder engagement.

OUR PEOPLE

  • HDSA – Historically disadvantaged South Africans.

ENERGY AND CARBON MANAGEMENT

  • Greenhouse gas emission (GHG emissions) – Gases which absorb outgoing terrestrial radiation, such as water vapour, methane, CFCs, and carbon dioxide.
  • Scope 1 carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions – are those directly occurring “from sources that are owned or controlled by the institution, including: on-campus stationary combustion of fossil fuels; mobile combustion of fossil fuels by institution owned/controlled vehicles; and “fugitive” emissions. Fugitive emissions result from intentional or unintentional releases of GHGs.
  • Scope 2 CO2 emissions – are “indirect emissions generated in the production of electricity consumed by the institution.”
  • Scope 3 CO2 emissions – are all the other indirect emissions that are “a consequence of the activities of the institution, but occur from sources not owned or controlled by the institution” such as commuting, air travel, waste disposal; embodied emissions from extraction, production, and transportation of purchased goods; outsourced activities; contractor-owned-vehicles; and line loss from electricity transmission and distribution”.
  • Equivalent carbon dioxide (CO2e) – measures for describing how much global warming a given type and amount of greenhouse gas may cause, using the functionally equivalent amount or concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) as the reference.